Causes and Effects of oil/natural Gas/coal on the Environment

Causes and Effects of oil/natural Gas/coal on the Environment

1000 word essay on the causes and effects of oil/natural gas/coal on the environment

“annotated bibliography”

Adekola, Oyebamiji, and Mba C. Igwe. “Effects of Oil Spillage on Community Development in the Niger Delta Region: Implications for the Eradication of Poverty and Hunger (Millennium Development Goal One) in Nigeria.” World Journal of Social Science1, no. 1 (2013): 27-36, doi:10.5430/wjss.v1n1p27.

In this article, Adekola and Igwe assessed the effects of oil spillage on community development particularly in Niger Delta area in Nigeria. They aimed to focus on its impact on poverty and hunger as well as way to address the problem. The authors keenly review the concept of oil spillage, poverty and community development. They prepared three research questions that guided their research. Data collection involved the use of focus groups, questionnaires and observation. Both authors are affiliated with the faculty of Education at the Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education at the University of Port Hacourt, Nigeria. The paper is critical in understanding the effects of oil spillage and how it impacts development and poverty.

Wiens, John A. “Oil and the Environment: a Russian Perspective.” BioScience 50, no. 10 (October 2000): 924-926. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0924:oatear]2.0.co;2.

John Wiens explores the impact of offshore exploration of gas and oil resources to the environment. He particularly bases this article on the project conducted by Dr. Stanislav Patin who charts a middle course in establishing whether it is possible to extract oil and gas from the floor of the ocean with minimum harm to the ecology of the shelf zone or negatively impacting the fishing industry. Dr. Patin is an accomplished Russian specialist on issues of the environment specifically in regards to the ocean along with anthropogenic effects on marine life and fish. On the other hand, Dr. John A. Wiens is a prominent ecologist whose work centers on birds and insects. He also exhibits a keen interest on community ecology as well as spatial relationships. In the study, the research focuses on Russia where Patin acknowledges that the country’s shelf zone bears the richest offshore hydrocarbon deposits than span 5 to 6 million square kilometers and that oil and gas production in this area are just beginning. It is found that exploration activities have changed the sediment and nutrient inputs in marine environments. There is about a 2% accident rate associated with transporting liquefied natural gas in the Russian Arctic shelf each year. These cause severe pollution of the marine ecosystem.

Munawer, Muhammad E. “Human Health and Environmental Impacts of Coal Combustion and Post-combustion Wastes.” Journal of Sustainable Mining, December 2017: 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.jsm.2017.12.007.

In this review, Munawer covers the impacts of the major pollutants associated with coal combustion and post-combustion wastes (including CoOx, SOx, NOx, PM and traces of heavy metals). The high energy generation capacity of coal has increased its popularity as a power generation option in many countries. However, the presence of hydrogen, carbon and sulfur is coal plants has led to significant release of pollutants (Cox, NOx, SOx and heavy metals) that have negative effects to flora and fauna. For instance, such toxic gases as fly ash cause bone deformities and kidney complications due to radionuclides. The article notes that harmful gases here are attributed to complex reactions of oxidation, leaching, melting and volatilization. Since there is a lack of sufficient data on cumulative impacts on health, this paper is important as an instrument to study related diseases and formulate management protocols.

United States. Bureau of Land Management. Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System: Final Environmental Impact Statement, Part 6, Volume 1, 6th ed. Washington: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1976.

This book covers various areas where natural gas transportation has significant impacts on the environment. One of these is the wetlands which includes coastal marshes, mudflats, bays and sand flats. The animals affected include wading birds, worms, insects, waterfowl and protozoa. Oil spills, loss of habitat and disturbance during exploration are the main causes of impacts. Dredging activities and oil spills affect estuarine organisms and toxic components disrupt their development. The discharge of drill cuttings, spillage and burial of pipelines impact benthic marine life adversely. Pelagic marine life such as nekton, zooplankton, phytoplankton and seabirds become stunted due to oil spills, toxic material and entrenchment of pipelines. The author notes that activities related to OCS leasing affects plants and animals. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) was established in 1946 to manage public land according to set values and attitudes for multiple uses across regions. This book gives a comprehensive analysis of the impacts of oil and gas exploration in oceanic settings.

McBroom, Matthew W. The Effects of Induced Hydraulic Fracturing on the Environment Commercial Demands Vs. Water, Wildlife, and Human Ecosystems. Toronto: Apple Academic Press, 2015. http://0-marc.crcnetbase.com.fama.us.es/isbn/9781482230956.

In this book, McBroom looks at the impacts of horizontal drilling by utilizing hydraulic fracturing in water bodies. The merits of induced hydraulic fracturing for commercial production of oil have been put to question given its numerous disruptions on land, water and air. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the relevant legislative and regulatory measures that are put in place to address the environmental threats in the Marcellus shale area. Additionally, McBroom looks at the regulatory challenges of state and local governments and provides appropriate suggestions for solutions. The book also delineates the impact of hydraulic fracturing on surface water and its influence on soil erosion. McBroom discusses a progress report by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources.  A case study is evaluated where one natural gas well pad (F1) was installed at Alto Experimental Watershed in East Texas and another (F2) was offset 15m at a nearby stream channel. Measurements of water quality and stream sedimentation were taken. The experiment found that over 222% more runoff was caused by the construction of the well pads. At F1, sediment yield was as high as 13,972 kg ha-1 yr-1 at F1 and 714 kg ha-1yr-1 at F2. Nitrogen losses were also great especially at F1. McBroom suggests that surface water quality can be conserved by adopting various practices such as maintaining streamside buffers.   He also writes about the need for proactive public health policies in relation to natural gas development. The content of this book is important in gaining deep insight into the environmental consequences of hydraulic fracturing.

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