Essay Paper on World Agriculture,Food, and Population
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“Seed”-related news story. (6 POINTS total)a. Locate and read a recent news story (within the past 4 years) that has to do with seeds (seed rights, seed “technology”, seed selection, seed companies, seed trading), crop genetic resources, wild crop relatives, or a related topic.b. (1 pt) On GauchoSpace, click on “FORUM: Summarize News Article” (In the “Homework” section on GauchoSpace). Click on “Add a New Topic”, and make the “Subject” of your post the same as the title of the article you are reading. c. (1 pt) On the first line of your post, report the author and date of the article, the publication (name of the newspaper, magazine, website, etc), and web address (if it is online) or issue and volume numbers.d. (4 pts, 200 word limit) For your post, write a brief summary of the article, and identify two (2) assumptions that are important for the topic at hand (the assumptions can be explicitly stated in the article, or can be implicit). R
Part B: Thinking about agricultural systems(10 points total)3. (4 POINTS, 120 word limit). What is the “pesticide treadmill”? Give two examples that illustrate this process.4. (4 POINTS, 120 word limit). In your own words, describe the difference between “food security” and “food sovereignty”.5. (2 POINTS, 60 word limit). Describe two (2) ways that high fuel prices can cause food prices to increase.
Part C: GHG calculations using Units and Numbers(16 points total)
6. Strawberry Miles & GHG emissions (6 POINTS total).For each 1 kg of strawberries cultivated in California, about 1750 grams of carbon dioxide equivalents (g CO2-eq) are emitted (100-year time horizon for GWP) . This result does not include transport from the farm to the place of consumption.In this problem, we will compare the clime impact of strawberrycultivation with transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.GHG emission intensities for different modes of transport are as follows (adapted from ref):ModeEmissionfactorTrain 0.18Truck 1.8
a. (2 pts) Calculate the GWP (in grams of CO2-eq) associated withtransporting 1 kg of strawberries 170 km (100 miles) by truck.b. (2 pts) Calculate the GWP (in grams of CO2-eq) associated with transporting 1 kg of strawberries 2000 km (~ 1200 miles) by train.c. (1 pt) How do your results from parts a. and b. compare with the emissions from cultivation in California?d. (1 pt) If strawberry cultivation in Florida emits 2500 g CO2-eq / kg strawberries (100-yr time horizon), how far could California strawberries be transported by train before emissions from cultivation and transport are equal to emissions from cultivation of Florida strawberries?
7. Nitrogen fertilizer & GHGs(6 POINTS total)In this problem, you will compare the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of nitrogen (N) fertilizer-related emissions for two maize-growing scenarios. The “Maize + N Scenario #1” represents prudent application of N fertilizer that supplies enough N for plant growth in most years. “Scenario #2” is a “high-N” scenario that causes larger nitrous oxide(N2O) emissions, but also can result in higher grain yields in some years (see note at the end of this problem about GHG emissions from Nfertilizer).a. (2 pts). For the Maize + N Scenario #1, calculate the GHG emissions from N fertilizer production and from N2O emissions after N application. Report your answers in Global Warming Potentials per unit of maize grain harvested. (suggested units: [g CO2-eq / kg grain harvested])b. (2 pts). In Scenario#2, the maize grain yield is higher, but the N2O emissions are also higher. Calculate the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of N2O per kg of grain harvested for Scenario #2, and compare with results for Scenario #1.c. (2 pts). List two factors, other than amount of N fertilizer applied, which can affect crop yields.